There is not much known about the populated world of the Covenant and the Covenant species, though Sanghelios, the homeworld of the Sangheili, is by far the most visited in the lore.
ALL COVENANT WORLDS
Balaho, home of the Unggoy, is a cold and desolate world with an atmosphere of methane. Doisac experienced an environmental catastrophe due to global nuclear war, but is still populated by billions of Jiralhanae. High Charity, meanwhile, was not a planet, but was considered the "home" of the Covenant and was the residence of most of the San'Shyuum up until its infestation by the Flood and crash into the Ark in 2558.